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Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech

Noun

Noun is the name of person, place, things, quality, condition etc.
OR  Name is noun.

There are five types of Noun

1.Proper Noun:-  Proper Noun is the name of definite person, place, things, animals etc. Such as

Ram   -- Ram is a name of a definite person.
Ganga – Ganga is a name of a definite river.
Reynold – Reynold is a name of a definite pen.
Varanasi -- Varanasi is a name of a definite place.

2-Common Noun:- Common Noun is the name of indefinite person, place, things, condition, quality etc. Such as river, pen, king, city, country, animal, boy, girl etc. Such as

She is a girl.
They are boys.
We are human.

3-Collective Noun:- The Noun which denotes a group of persons, animals or things is called collective noun.Such as

Class – A group of boys and girls.
Family  -- A group of parents and children.
Army – A group of soldiers.

4-Material Noun:- Material noun is the name of substance with which we can make things. OR The noun of which other thing can be made or which is used for eating or drinking is called material noun. Such as Gold, silver, water, milk, iron, sugar, salt etc.

A chair is made of wood.
Curd is made of milk.
This is made of gold.
Oil is made from mustard.

Note – Material Noun is generally  uncountable noun but sometimes we use it as countable. In doing so, that material noun becomes or turns into Common Noun. And when material noun is used as Common Noun, we use article (a, an, the) before that material noun. For Example.

Material Noun --  Iron is a metal.
Common Noun --  we press our clothes with an Iron.
Material Noun --  We write on paper.
Common Noun – “The  Hindustan Times” is a paper.

5- Abstract Noun:-It is the name of qualty, action, and state-love, honesty, hatred. In other words we can say that noun which we can’t touch, taste, only we can feel in our hearts by our feelings is called abstract noun. Such as

Honesty  is the best policy.
Music is divine.
Love is God.
Childhood  is unique
Old age is a second childhood.



Pronoun


The word which is used in place of  Noun is called Pronoun. Such as


He is a teacher.
We love each other.
One can learn English.


Types of Pronoun:- These are following.


1-Personal Pronoun:- The pronoun which is used for any  person, place, animals or things etc. is called Person Pronoun. Such as I, we, you, she, he, they, it  etc.
 These are also three types

First Person – I, We
Second Person – You
Third Person – He, She, It, They.


He is a teacher.
She is a doctor.

Note – Personal Pronoun has three aspect to which we say case. These are follows.

Person
Pronoun
Subjective Case
Objective Case
Possessive Case
Possessive. Adj. &Poss. Pronoun
First Person
I
I
Me
My
mine
We
We
Us
Our
Ours
Second Person
You
You
You
Your
Yours
Third Person
He
He
Him
His
His
She
She
Her
Her
Her/hers
It
It
It
Its
Its
They
They
Them
Their
theirs


2-Demonstrative Pronoun:- When this , that, these or those indicates towards any person or things, then these are called Demonstrative Pronoun. And after this pronoun verb is used. Such as

This is pen
Those are books.
These are farmers
That is a mirror.

3-Possessive Pronoun:-The Pronoun which is used to possess the noun is called possessive pronoun. Such as mine, our, hers, his, its, theirs, yours.

These books are mine.
Those pens are not yours.
Hers is a good book.

4-Interrogative Pronoun:-The pronoun which is used to ask question is called Interrogative Pronoun. Such as who, whom, whose, which, what, where, how, why etc.

Whose is this child?
Who is your father?
Whom do you like most?

5-Reciprocal Pronoun:- The pronoun which forms from two pronoun and denotes mutual relation is called Reciprocal Pronoun. There are only pronoun in it and these are “each other” and “one another”.
Each other – denotes relation between two nouns/pronouns.

Example.  Ram and Mohan love each others.
                 Ram and Syam always quarrel with each other.
One another – denotes relation between more than two nouns/pronouns
Example.  Ram, Laxman and Bharat love one another.
                 All of them love one another.

6-Reflexive Pronoun:-  The pronoun which is used in place of a such noun which plays both role as a subject and an object is called Reflexive Pronoun. Or
When a subject does any work and result of that work affect the same subject, there reflexive pronoun is used. These pronouns are always written after verbs. That’s why it is used as an object. Such as

I killed myself.
You are cheating yourself.
You should think about yourself.

7- Emphatic Pronoun:- Emphatic pronouns are generally used after subject  of sentence. These pronouns are written in apposition of subject to emphasize subject. Or
When Reflexive Pronoun is used to emphasize noun or pronoun, it is called Emphatic pronoun.

myself can cook the food.
He himself stood for speaking.
You yourself can do this work.

8-Relative Pronoun:- The Pronoun  which concerns/relates  any noun/pronoun, and used in place of that noun/pronoun, is called Relative pronoun.These are who, what, which, whom, whose, that. Such as

I lost the book which you gave me.
It is you who can do this work.

9-Compound Relative Pronoun:- When “ever” or “soever” is added with relative pronoun, new made word is called Compound Relative Pronoun. Such as
Who + ever = Whoever

Example.  Welcome whoever comes here.
Which + ever = Whichever

Example.  Take whichever you like
Whom + soever = Whomsoever

Example.  Tell me whomsoever you like to marry.
What + ever = Whatever

Example.  I did whatever I liked.

10-Distributive Pronoun:- The Pronoun which is used as distribution for noun is called Distributive Pronoun. Such as either, neither, anyone, each of…, every , none of …..etc.

Each of these boys will study English.
None of you will go there.
Take either of the pen.
Neither of you can defeat the seniors.

11-Indefinite Pronoun:- The pronoun which does not indicate any definite person or things is called indefinite pronoun.After Indefinite Pronoun, no Noun is used. Such as one, none, any, somebody, nobody, anybody, some, all etc..

Some are born great.
All are sitting in hall.
One must perform one’s duty.
Anyone can speak English.
I saw some of them.

12-Exclamatory Pronoun:- There is only one pronoun (what) that shows sorrow, joy, and surprise in sentence. Such as

What a foolish man he is! ---  SAD
What! You don’t know Buddha. ---SURPRISE
What! My old friend has come. ---JOY

13- Impersonal Pronoun:- There are only two pronouns (It, they) in it. When “it” or “they”  is not in its meaning , that time these pronouns are called impersonal pronoun. Such as.

It rains.
It is 2 o,clock by my watch.
They say that Lucy is not dead.
Note ---- here meaning of they is” people.” Therefore here, they is used as impersonal pronoun.

14-Zero Relative Pronoun:- The Pronoun that hasn’t its antecedent (its preceding object), is called Zero Relative Pronoun. Such as what.

Eat what you like.
Do what you want to do.


Verb

The word which tells something about person, place, or things etc., is called Verb.

It is classified into two parts.

A-Main Verb / Principal Verb:- It is also classified into two parts.

i-Transitive Verb: - In Transitive Verb emotion passes from subject to object. Or action of verb is passed from a subject to an object, that verb is called Transitive verb. Transitive verb has succeeding verb.Such as give, take, bring, teach, see, watch,sell, send etc.

I’ll give a book to you.
watch a very good movie last night.
I can see whole world on internet.

ii-Intransitive Verb:- It is opposite of transitive verb. It doesn’t have any succeeding object like Transitive verb. It only points to a condition. Such as dance, cry, weep, sleep, wake up, laugh, go, come, walk, stand, sit, run etc.

you danced very well.
Child is crying .
A shouldn’t sleep much while chasing his target.
She laughs very much.
Let’s go.
walk daily in the morning.

B-Helping Verb / Auxiliary Verb:- It is also classified into two parts.
i-Primary Auxiliary Verb:- Primary Auxiliary verbs are am, are, is, was, were, has,have, had, do, does.

am good at English.
You are a good cricket player.
He is a doctor.
They were very nice.
have much money.
She hasn’t any fear.
Ram does his work very well.

ii-Modal Auxiliary Verb:-  Modal Auxiliary Verbs are shall, will, can, could, would, should, may, might, ought to, much, dare, need.

You should respect you elders.
You can do this work.
May I come in?
You must study.



Adjective


Adjective is a word which qualifies or modifies any noun-pronoun or gives some extra knowledge about it, is called Adjective.


Sita was an ideal wife.
Tom was a naughty boy.


Kinds of Adjective:- There are ten types of Adjective.


1-Adjective of Quality:-The Adjective which explains quality, fault, aspect, color of any person or things is called Adjective of quality. Such as

Brutus was an ideal man of Rome.
I have a white cow.
I am black.

2-Proper Adjective:- The Adjective which is formed by Proper Noun is called Proper Adjective. Such as


Proper Noun
Proper Adjective
India
Indian
America
American
England
English
China
Chinese

I like Chinese toys.
The English language is not very difficult.
Indian farmers are very hard worker.

3-Interrogative Adjective:- The Adjective which is used to ask question, is called Interrogative adjective. Such as what, which, whose etc. And after these words, always noun is used.

Whose son are you?
What things do you want?
Which book do you like most?

4-Possessive Adjective:- The word which denotes possession is called Possessive Adjective. Possessive adjective are my, your, our, their, his, her, its etc.

You are my friend.
Sita has completed her work.
I am satisfied with your work.

5-Demonstrative Adjective:- The adjective which is used to indicate the person, place, things, animals etc. ,is called Demonstrative Pronoun. Demonstrative Pronouns are this, that, these, those. After these words, noun is used. Such as

This book is good.
Those flowers are beautiful.
Is that pen not good?
These students are very good.

6-Distributive Adjective:- The adjective that shows the distribution of person or things separately, is called Distributive Adjective. Such as each, every, either, neither etc.

Every boy got a prize.
Every girl enjoyed.
I bought neither pen.
I shall buy either pen.

Note: --- Each, either, neither are Pronoun and Adjective, but “every” is only Adjective.
“Each of them“ can be and “everyone of them” can be  but  “Every of them” can not be.

7-Adjective of Number:-The Adjective that shows the number of noun or pronoun, is called Adjective of Number or Numeral Adjective.After Numeral Adjective, countable noun is used.

 There are three types of Numeral Adjective.



  1. Definite Adjective of Number
  2. Indefinite Adjective of Number
  3. Distributive Numeral Adjective


1-Definite Adjective of Number:- It is used to denote exact number /position of subject.  It is also four types
Cardinal :- This definite numeral adjective denotes the number of noun/pronoun. Such as one, two, three, four……etc.
Ordinal:- It denotes the series/serial of noun or pronoun. Such as first, second, third, fourth, fifth…….etc.
Multiplicative:- It denotes multiplication. Such as single, double, triple, fourfold…..etc.
Fractional:- It denotes the fraction of noun or pronoun. Such as Half, one third, two third, one fourth..etc.
2-Indefinite Numeral Adjective:-The adjective which does not denote the definite number of noun or pronoun is called Indefinite Numeral Adjective.Such as some, any, no, most, enough, etc.

Some boys are playing in the field.
I have some books on grammar.
I have no extra pen.
I have taught many boys.
All men must die.
Mr. Washington passed several examinations.

3-Distributive Numeral Adjective:-These Adjectives are similar to Distributive Adjectives and used to indicate nouns as individual or separately. Such as

Each of students will do their work.
Every farmer should cultivate.
I bought neither of clothes.
8-Adjective of Quantity:- The Adjective that shows the quantity of noun or pronoun is called Adjective of quantity. Such as whole, some, little, all, few, no, any, enough, etc. After Adjective of quantity, uncountable noun is be used.

Give me some milk.
They have enough good.
I ate some rice.
He has little knowledge.
She ate whole apple.

9-Emphasizing Adjective:-The word which is used to emphasize the noun or pronoun is called Emphasizing Adjective. Such as “own”  and “very”

Mind your own business.
I am my own boss.
This is the very man who helped me.

10-Exclamatory Adjective:-The word which is used to show surprise, joy,sorrow etc. is called Exclamatory Adjective. Such as “what”

What a boy you are!
What an idea!
What a game!
What a lucky she is!


Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies all part of speech except Noun,Pronoun and Interjection.

How to recognize an Adverb.


=> When any word comes between Article (a,an,the) and Adjective, that word is called Adverb.Such as

She is a very good girl.

=> The answer which comes after questioning “ how many, how much, when, where” except noun,pronoun and interjection, is called adverb. Such as

He reads English slowly.    How he reads English? Answer is “slowly.” This word is adverb.


Kinds of Adverb: There are three types of adverb


A-Simple Adverb:- 

Simple adverb is also many types.
1-Adverb of Time:- 
The adverb that answers the question ‘when’, is called Adverb of Time. Such as today, yesterday, now, then, tomorrow, soon, ago, formerly, lately etc.

He died yesterday.
You may leave now.
You are late.
Yesterday, I wrote a letter.
I have already completed this work.
My friend will come tomorrow.

2-Adverb of Place:- 
The adverb that answers the question ‘where’, is called Adverb of Place. Such as here, there, everywhere, nowhere, in, out, inside, outside, away, upstairs, thither, hither, below, above downstairs, forward backward etc.

May I come in?
I’ll go there.
He came forward to put his view on the topic.

3-Adverb of Frequency:- 
The adverb that answers the question ‘how often’, is called Adverb of frequency. Such as again, always, hardly, once, often, frequency etc.

Always respect your elders.
I go to village frequently.
often go there for morning walk.

4-Adverb of Number:-
The adverb that answers the question ‘in what order’, is called Adverb of Number. Such as lastly firstly, secondly, thirdly, twice, trice etc.

I watch movie once in a week.
Secondly, you can not buy this car.
I go to bank twice in a month.
5-Adverb of Manner:-

The adverb that answers the question ‘in what manner’, is called Adverb of Manner. Such as fast, hard, slowly, soundly, well, clearly, bravely, probably, certainly, sadly, only, carefully, really, seriously etc.

The dog ran fast after the cat.
The boy worked hard.
You are seriously very sick.
You can speak English well.

6-Adverb of Degree or Quality:- 
The adverb that answers the question ‘how much’ or ‘in what degree’, is called Adverb of Degree or Quality. Such as little, partly, very, much, so, quite, many , fully, half, rather, as enough etc.

He is rather sad.
I am fully prepared.
India has half chance to win the game.
I have little money to go there.
He is very enthusiastic.
I have almost done the work.
You are entirely wrong.

7-Adverb of Reason:- 
The Adverb that answers the question ‘why’, is called Adverb of Reason. Such as hence, therefore, so, thus, consequently etc.

He didn’t do hard work,therefore, he got failed in examination.
He did good preparation for exam, so he got succeeded.

8-Adverb of Affirmation or Negation:- 
The Adverb which answers the question in affirmatively or negatively, is called Adverb of Affirmation or Negation. Such as surely, yes, certainly, no, not , seldom etc.

don’t smoke.
Yes, I’ll do your work.
Certainly, I can do this work.

B- Interrogative Adverb:- 
When Interrogative words (how, when, why, where etc.) begin any sentence. And give information of time, place, reason manner etc. Then, these words are called Interrogative Adverb. Such as

When do you get up?
How did you solve this question?
Where do you live?
Why did you come here?

C-Relative adverb:- 
When Relative Adverb is used as a Conjunction to join two clauses into one, this word is called Relative Adverb. Such as

I know the time when he comes.
This is the house where I lived before.
I’ll tell the way how you should do this work.
Can you tell me the reason why he didn’t come here?


Conjunction

Conjunction is a word which adds two words or sentences, is called Conjunction.

It is classified into two parts.

1-Co-ordinating Conjunction:-
The conjunction by equal the words or sentences of equal rank is joined, is called Co-ordinating Conjunction. It is classified into four parts.
i-Cumulative Conjunction:
 It only adds one sentence or word to another. Such as asn, both…and, as well as, not only… *. but also, both.

You are both clever and beautiful.
as well as you  passed the examination.
Robbers not only looted the village but also set homes on fire.

ii-Adversative Conjunction:
It adds two sentences showing opposition or contrast. Such  but, still, yet, nevertheless, only, however etc.

he is poor, still he is very honest.
You not good at English, yet you passed the English exam very well.
Only you can do this work.
He is rich still he unhappy.
She was inexperience, nevertheless she decided to play the game.

iii-Alternative Conjunction:
It adds two sentences or words showing alternatives or indicating choice between them, is called a Alternative or Disjunctive Conjunction. Such as or,either…or, neither….nor, otherwise, else.

What will you take tea or coffee.
you either want to buy something or go to home.
I’ll neither buy anything nor go to home.


IV. Illative Conjunction:
The conjunction that Expresses  some inference, is called Illative Conjunction of Inferential Conjunction. Such as Therefore, for, then, so.

You worked hard so you will win.
You got failed for you did not work hard.
He didn’t come in class for he is ill.

2-Subordinating Conjunction:- 

A subordinating conjunction connects a subordinate clause to a principal clause. Such as As if, as soon as, as, though,  so that, even if, when, because, since, although, than, unless, until, while, whereas, that, because, since before,whenever, whether, except, after,if,so far as, even though, such that, in order that, in order to, inasmuch as, as long as  etc.

I’ll not request even if I get failed.
I’ll not beg even if I die.
He will not come in party unless you invite him.
Though he worked hard, he couldn’t pass the examination.
We did not go out because it was raining.
Do your work  as you have  been directed.
This is the home where our family used to live.

Preposition

Preposition is a word that shows relation between two nouns or pronouns.

Kind of Preposition:

1-Simple Preposition:-
Simple Prepositions are one word Preposition.  Such as at, on, from, with, upon, up, over, in, after, by, for, off, till etc.

The book is under the table.
I am watching at the background.
I am always with you.

2-Compound Preposition:- 
The preposition which is made by adding any prefix, is called Compound Preposition. Such as about, beneath, beside, aside, before, alone, below, underneath, beyond, outside, inside, across, within, without etc.

You can not pass the examination without preparation.
I know about you.
I’ll reach there before you.
I can go to that place alone.
You should pay your income tax return within one months.

3-Distinguished Preposition:-
Sometimes “o” and “a” are used like a preposition, then these words are called Distinguished Preposition. Such as

It is five o’clock. =means = five on clock -> Here “o” means “on” so ‘O’ is a Distinguished Preposition.
I purchased cloth at one yard a rupee.  Here ‘a rupee’ means ‘for a rupee’ so "A" is a Distinguished Preposition.

4-Participial Preposition:- 
The Preposition in which ‘ing’ is added is called Participial Preposition. Such as during, concerning, considering, pending, notwithstanding, respecting, admitting, regarding etc.

You played well, considering you inexperience.
Still you don’t know anything regarding this topic.
You had less chance for succeeding, notwithstanding you tried your best.

5-Special Preposition:- 
There are only two Special Preposition. That is But & Than.
A- Than:- This word is conjunction but sometimes it is used as a preposition. Such as

I can not accept less than thirty rupees for this book.

B- But:-This word is also conjunction but sometimes it is also used like a conjunction that time its meaning is “except” or “in addition to” or “besides.” Such as

What could I do but request?
None but brave deserves the fair.

C- A:- sometimes “A is also used as a Special Preposition. Such as

My wages are 100 rupees a day.
I meet him once a week.
Milk is being sold Rs. 20/- a liter.

6-Prepositional Phrase:- 
When a noun is used between two prepositions, those words are called Prepositional Phrase. Such as by means of, with regard to, because of, instead to, on account of, in opposition to, for the sake of, in course of time, in front of, in order to, in place of etc.

The man dies in course of time.
You will have to work hard in order to pass the examination.
I choose English in place of Sanskrit.
There is a gate in front of my house.
Armies give their life for the sake of their country.
He didn’t come in class because of illness.


Interjection 

The word which is used to express joy, surprise, sorrow, contempt etc. is called Interjection. Such as

Alas!, Ah -----  is used  for sorrow
Hurrah! -----   is used for joy
Barvo!, Weldone! ------ is used for encouragement
Fie! Fie!  ------  is used for contempt
Hello! -----  is used for attention

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